LUMIX GX85 4K Mirrorless Interchangeable Lens Camera Kit, 12-32mm Lens, 16 Megapixels, Dual Image Stabilization, Electronic Viewfinder, WiFi - Black
- New 5-axis in-body sensor stabilizer works with LUMIX 2-axis optically stabilized lenses in video and still capture modes using class-leading Dual Image Stabilization.
- Eliminates the need for low-pass sensor filters while boosting fine detail resolving power by nearly 10% over existing 16-Megapixel MFT sensors.
- Shoot lighter and faster with the modern hybrid photography performance of a Mirrorless camera and nearly half the bulk of most DSLRs.
- Thumbwheel controls, integrated viewfinder and touch control enabled tilting LCD maximize control of the photographic experience.
- Capture spontaneous moments with 4K imaging performance in both 4K video and exclusive 4K PHOTO and Post Focus.
- Expand creative possibilities with 27 (and growing) interchangeable lens options.
- USB Mobile Charging Friendly
For today's interchangeable lens camera enthusiasts — or anyone looking for a lighter, newer more intelligent alternative to bulky DSLRs — Panasonic LUMIX Mirrorless Micro Four Thirds system cameras deliver impressive, no-compromise performance.
Nearly half the size of most DSLRs, the DMC-GX85 delivers impressive large sensor performance in the most compact camera system ever designed by Panasonic LUMIX. Thanks to the elimination of the low pass filter, its fine detail resolving power is boosted nearly 10% over previous 16-Megapixel sensors. Image stabilization is top of its class with the complementary LUMIX 2-axis lens O.I.S. and a new 5-axis in-body I.S., available in either photo or video recording modes.
Camera purists will enjoy the familiar quick-access thumbwheel controls and integrated 2764k-dot eye-level electronic viewfinder, plus a tilting LCD display for greater flexibility in difficult shooting angles. Modern enthusiasts will love the WiFi mobile control and next-generation flexibility that 4K Video, 4K PHOTO and 4K Post Focus modes bring to the creative experience.
A new 5-Axis in-body sensor stabilizer works in tandem with LUMIX 2-Axis optically stabilized
lenses* in either video or still capture modes.
* Compatible with select LUMIX Lenses
The GX85 eliminates the detail-depriving low-pass filter from the sensor. The result is a near 10% boost in fine detail resolving power over existing 16 Megapixel Micro Four Thirds sensors.
Nearly half the bulk of most DSLRs with the modern hybrid photography performance of a Mirrorless camera.
Integrated thumb-wheel controls and easily accessible exposure control dials provide a familiar DSLR-like feel and experience.
An integrated 2764k-dot Electronic Viewfinder improves viewability under harsh sunlight, and promotes improved shot framing posture for added handheld stability.
A touch enabled tilting LCD provides 80 degrees
of up-tilt and 45 degrees of down-tilt to maximize viewing in difficult framing situations.
Expand and enhance creative possibilities with 27 (and growing) lens options. The most of any Mirrorless camera system available today.
4K Ultra HD Video provides four times the resolution of HD Video. 4K PHOTO isolates video frames at 30 frames per second as high resolution photos, to ensure you'll never miss that moment again. And with 4K Post Focus you can capture now and refocus later.
Panasonic's Depth-From-Defocus (DFD) Auto Focus (AF) technology instantly calculates subject distance, then drives the focus mechanism with one quick, continuous movement for faster AF speeds.
RAW-format images can be easily developed in-camera with adjustments.*
*Color Space Setting (sRGB / AdobeRGB), White Balance, Exposure Compensation, Photo Style, Intelligent D-Range Control, Contrast, Highlight / Shadow, Saturation, Noise Reduction, Intelligent Resolution and Sharpness.
- Type Digital Single Lens Mirrorless camera
- Recording media SD Memory Card, SDHC Memory Card, SDXC Memory Card
- Recording media (Compatible with UHS-I UHS Speed Class 3 standard SDHC / SDXC Memory Cards)
- Image sensor size 17.3 x 13.0 mm (in 4:3 aspect ratio)
- Lens mount Micro Four Thirds mount
- Type Live MOS Sensor
- Total pixels 16.84 Megapixels
- Camera effective pixels 16.00 Megapixels
- Color filter Primary color filter
- Dust reduction system Supersonic wave filter
- Aspect ratio 4:3, 3:2, 16:9, 1:1
- Image quality RAW, RAW+Fine, RAW+Standard, Fine, Standard
- Image quality MPO+Fine / MPO+Standard (with 3D lens in Micro Four Thirds system standard)
- Color Space sRGB, AdobeRGB
- Continuous recordable time (Motion picture) AVCHD [FHD/60i]: Approx. 100 min (rear monitor), 90 min (LVF) with H-FS12032
- Continuous recordable time (Motion picture) MP4 [4K/30p]: Approx. 80 min (rear monitor), 70 min (LVF) with H-FS12032
- Actual recordable time (Motion picture) AVCHD [FHD/60i]: Approx. 50 min (rear monitor), 45 min (LVF) with H-FS12032
- Actual recordable time (Motion picture) MP4 [4K/30p]: Approx. 40 min (rear monitor), 35 min (LVF) with H-FS12032
- Recording file format
- Still image JPEG (DCF, Exif 2.3), RAW, MPO (When attaching 3D lens in Micro Four Thirds system standard)
- Motion picture AVCHD (Audio format: Dolby Digital 2ch), MP4 (Audio format: AAC 2ch)
- File size(Pixels)
- Still Image [4:3] 4592x3448(L) / 3232x2424(M) / 2272x1704(S) / 1824x1368 (When attaching 3D lens in Micro Four Third system standard)
- Still Image [3:2] 4592x3064(L) / 3232x2160(M) / 2272x1520(S) / 1824x1216 (When attaching 3D lens in Micro Four Third system standard)
- Still Image [16:9] 4592x2584(L) / 3840x2160(M) / 1920x1080(S) / 1824x1024 (When attaching 3D lens in Micro Four Third system standard)
- Still Image [1:1] 3424x3424(L) / 2416x2416(M) / 1712x1712(S) / 1712x1712 (When attaching 3D lens in Micro Four Third system standard)
- Motion picture*
- MP4 N/A
- AVCHD N/A
- MP4* [4K] 3840x2160: 4K/30p 100Mbps, 4K/24p 100Mbps
- MP4* [Full HD] 1920x1080: FHD/60p 28Mbps, FHD/60p 28Mbps
- MP4* [HD] 1280x720: HD/30p 10Mbps
- MP4* [VGA] 640x480: VGA/30p 4Mbps
- AVCHD* [Full HD] 1920x1080 FHD/60p: 28Mbps, 60p recording
- AVCHD* [Full HD] 1920x1080 FHD/60i: 17Mbps, 60i recording
- AVCHD* [Full HD] 1920x1080 FHD/30p: 24Mbps, 60i recording (sensor output is 30fps)
- AVCHD* [Full HD] 1920x1080 FHD/24p: 24Mbps, 24p recording
- WiFi IEEE 802.11b/g/n, 2412 MHz - 2462 MHz (1-11 ch), Wi-Fi / WPA / WPA2, Infrastructure mode
- NFC No
- QR Code Connection Yes
- Password-less connection Yes (ON / OFF selectable)
- Type LCD Live View Finder (2,764,800 dots equivalent)
- Field of view Approx. 100%
- Magnification Approx. 1.39x / 0.7x (35mm camera equivalent) with 50 mm lens at infinity; -1.0 m-1
- Eye point Approx. 17.5 mm from eyepiece lens
- Diopter adjustment -4.0 - +3.0 (dpt)
- Eye sensor Yes
- Eye sensor adjustment High / Low
- Type Contrast AF system
- DFD technology Yes
- Post Focus Yes
- Focus Stacking N/A
- Focus mode AFS (Single) / AFF (Flexible) / AFC (Continuous) / MF
- AF mode Face/Eye Detection / Tracking / 49-Area / Custom Multi / 1-Area / Pinpoint
- AF mode (Full area touch is available)
- AF detective range EV -4 - 18 (ISO100 equivalent)
- Starlight AF Yes
- AF assist lamp Yes
- AF lock Yes (AF/AE LOCK button)
- Others One Shot AF, Shutter AF, Half Press Release, Quick AF, Continuous AF (during motion picture recording), Eye Sensor AF, AF+MF, MF Assist, Touch MF Assist, Focus Peaking, Touch AF/AE Function, Touch Pad AF, Touch Shutter
- Light metering system 1728-zone multi-pattern sensing system
- Light metering mode Multiple / Center Weighted / Spot
- Metering range EV 0 - 18 (F2.0 lens, ISO100 equivalent)
- Exposure mode Program AE, Aperture Priority AE, Shutter Priority AE, Manual
- ISO sensitivity (Standard Output Sensitivity) Auto / Intelligent ISO / 100 (Extended) / 200 / 400 / 800 / 1600 / 3200 / 6400 / 12800 / 25600 (Changeable to 1/3 EV step)
- ISO sensitivity (Standard Output Sensitivity) (Up to ISO6400 in motion picture recording) (ISO Auto in M mode)
- Exposure compensation 1/3 EV step ±5EV (±3EV for motion picture)
- AE lock Yes (AF/AE LOCK button)
- AE bracket N/A
- White balance Auto / Daylight / Cloudy / Shade / incandescent / Flash / White Set 1, 2, 3, 4 / Color temperature setting
- White balance adjustment Blue/Amber bias, Magenta/Green bias
- Color temperature setting 2500-10000K in 100K
- White balance bracket N/A
- Type Focal-plane shutter
- Shutter speed Still image: Still image: Time (Max. 2 minutes), 1/4,000 - 60
- Shutter speed Motion picture: 1/16,000 - 1/25
- Shutter speed Electronic shutter: 1/16,000 - 1
- Self timer 10sec, 3 images / 2sec / 10sec
- Remote control N/A
- Still image N/A
- Motion picture N/A
- AE bracket 3, 5, 7 frames in 1/3, 2/3 or 1 EV Step, Max. ±3 EV, single/burst
- Aperture Bracket 3, 5 or all positions in 1 EV step
- Focus Bracket 1 to 999 frames, focus steps can be set in 5 levels
- White balance bracket 3 exposures in blue/amber axis or in magenta/green axis
- Panorama shot Yes (Standard / Wide)
- Burst speed [Mechanical shutter] AFS: H: 8 frames/sec, M: 6 frames/sec (with Live View), L: 2 frames/sec (with Live View)
- Burst speed [Mechanical shutter] AFC: H: 6 frames/sec, M: 6 frames/sec (with Live View), L: 2 frames/sec (with Live View)
- Burst speed [Electronic shutter] SH: 40 frames/sec
- Burst speed [Electronic shutter] AFS: H: 10 frames/sec, M: 6 frames/sec (with Live View), L: 2 frames/sec (with Live View)
- Burst speed [Electronic shutter] AFC: H: 6 frames/sec, M: 6 frames/sec (with Live View), L: 2 frames/sec (with Live View)
- Number of recordable images More than 13 images (when there are RAW files with the particular speed)
- Number of recordable images More than 100 images (when there are no RAW files)
- Number of recordable images (depending on memory card type, aspect, picture size and compression)
4K PHOTO MODE
- 4K Photo mode* 4K Burst: 30 frames/sec
- 4K Photo mode* 4K Burst (S/S): 30 frames/sec
- 4K Photo mode* 4K Pre-Burst: 30 frames/sec, approx. 2 seconds
- 4K Photo mode* (depending on memory card size and battery power)
- Exif information Yes
- Selectable aspect ratio Yes (4:3 / 3:2 / 16:9 / 1:1 are selectable)
- Exposure mode Program AE/ Aperture-Priority / Sutter-Priority / Manual Exposure
- Marking function Yes (in 4K Burst (S/S) mode)
- Loop rec function Yes (in 4K Burst (S/S) mode)
- Flash type TTL Built-in-Flash, GN6.0 equivalent (ISO200 ・m) / GN4.2 equivalent (ISO100 ・m), Built-in Pop-up (Reference）
- Flash Mode Auto*, Auto/Red-eye Reduction*, Forced On, Forced On/Red-eye Reduction, Slow Sync., Slow Sync./Red-eye Reduction, Forced Off * For iA, iA+ only.
- Synchronization speed Less than 1/160 second
- Flash output adjustment 1/3EV step ±3EV
- Flash synchronization 1st. Curtain Sync, 2nd Curtain Sync.
- Synchronization for flash dimming and exposure compensation Yes
- Wireless control N/A
- Type TFT LCD monitor with static touch control
- Monitor size Tilt 3.0-inch / 3:2 aspect / Wide viewing angle
- Pixels Approx. 1,040k dots
- Filed of view Approx. 100%
- Monitor adjustment Brightness, Contrast, Saturation, Red-Green, Blue-Yellow
- Digital zoom 2x, 4x
- Extra Tele Conversion Still image: Max. 2x
- Extra Tele Conversion Motion picture: 2.4x (FHD), 3.6x (HD), 4.8x (VGA)
- Other functions Level Gauge, Real-time Histogram, Guide Lines (3 patterns), Highlight display (Still image / motion picture), Zebra pattern (Still image / motion picture)
DIRECTION DETECTION FUNCTION
- Direction Detection Function Yes
- Self Shot Mode N/A
- Shutter N/A
- Effect N/A
- Fn1, Fn2, Fn3, Fn4, Fn5, Fn6 N/A
- Fn1, Fn2, Fn3, Fn4, Fn5, Fn6, Fn7, Fn8, Fn9 4K Photo Mode / Wi-Fi / Q.MENU / LVF/Monitor Switch / AF/AE LOCK / AF-ON / Preview / One Push AE / Touch AE / Level Gauge / Focus Area Set / Zoom Control / Cursor Button Lock / Dial Operation Switch / Photo Style / Filter Select / Aspect Ratio / Picture Size / Quality / Metering Mode / Bracket / Focus Mode / Highlight Shadow / i. Dynamic / i. Resolution / Post Focus / HDR / Shutter Type / Flash Mode / Flash Adjust. / Ex. Tele Conv. / Digital Zoom / Stabilizer / Snap Movie / Motion Pic. Set / Picture Mode / Silent Mode / Peaking / Histogram / Guide Line / Zebra Pattern / Monochrome Live View / Rec Area / Step Zoom / Zoom Speed / Touch Screen / Sensitivity / White Balance / AF Mode/MF / Drive Mode / Restore to Default
- Fn1, Fn2, Fn3, Fn4, Fn5, Fn6, Fn7, Fn8, Fn9, Fn10 N/A
- Still image and motion picture Standard / Vivid / Natural / Monochrome / L. Monochrome / Scenery / Portrait / Custom
- Still image Expressive / Retro / Old Days / High Key / Low Key / Sepia / Monochrome / Dynamic Monochrome / Rough Monochrome / Silky Monochrome / Impressive Art / High Dynamic / Cross Process / Toy Effect / Toy Pop / Bleach Bypass / Miniature Effect / Soft Focus / Fantasy / Star Filter / One Point Color / Sunshine
- Motion picture Expressive / Retro / Old Days / High Key / Low Key / Sepia / Monochrome / Dynamic Monochrome / Impressive Art / High Dynamic / Cross Process / Toy Effect / Toy Pop / Bleach Bypass / Miniature Effect / Fantasy / One Point Color
CREATIVE VIDEO MODE
- Exposure mode Program AE / Aperture-Priority / Sutter-Priority / Manual Exposure
MOTION PICTURE FUNCTION
- Cinelike gamma N/A
- Flicker reduction [1/50] / [1/60] / [1/100] / [1/120] / OFF
- Playback function 30-thumbnail display, 12-thumbnail display, Calendar display, Zoomed playback (Max. 16x), Slideshow (All / Picture Only / Video Only / 4K PHOTO / Post Focus / 3D / Category Selection / Favorite, duration & effect is selectable), Playback Mode (Normal / Picture Only / Video Only / 4K PHOTO / Post Focus / 3D Play / Category / Favorite), Location Logging, RAW Processing, Light Composition, Clear Retouch, Title Edit, Text Stamp, Video Divide, Time Lapse Video, Stop Motion Video, Resize, Cropping, Rotate, Rotation Display, Favorite, DPOF Print Set, Protect, Face Recognition Edit, Picture Sort, Creating Still Pictures from a Motion Picture
IMAGE PROTECTION / ERASE
- Protection Single / Multi
- Erase Single / Multi / All / Except Favorite
- Direct Print PictBridge compatible
- USB USB 2.0 High Speed Multi
- HDMI N/A
- HDMI** microHDMI TypeD / VIERA Link
- HDMI** Video: Auto / 4K / 1080p / 1080i / 720p / 480p
- HDMI** Audio: Stereo
- Audio video output No
- Remote input N/A
- External microphone input N/A
- Microphone Stereo, Wind-cut: OFF / Standard / High
- Speaker Monaural
- OSD language Japanese, English, German, French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Chinese (Traditional)
- Battery Li-ion Battery Pack (7.2V, 1025mAh, 7.4Wh) (Included)
- Battery AC Adaptor (Input: 110 - 240V AC) (Included, connect with USB cable)
- Battery life (CIPA standard) Approx. 290 images (rear monitor), 270 images (LVF) with H-FS12032
- Battery grip N/A
- DIMENSIONS / WEIGHT
- Dimensions (W x H x D) 122 x 70.6 x 43.9 mm / 4.80 x 2.78 x 1.73 inch (excluding protrusions)
- Weight Approx. 426g / 0.94 lb (SD card, Battery, Body)
- Weight Approx. 383g / 0.84 lb (Body only)
- Weight Approx. 493g / 1.09 lb (SD card, Battery, H-FS12032 lens included)
- OPERATING ENVIRONMENT
- Operating temperature 0℃ to 40℃ (32°F to 104°F)
- Operating humidity 10%RH to 80％RH
- STANDARD ACCESSORIES
- Software ・ The software to edit and playback images on computer is not bundled with DMC-GX85. To do this, PHOTOfunSTUDIO is available for download at Panasonic website using computer connected to the Internet.
- http://panasonic.jp/support/global/cs/soft/download/d_pfs99pe.html (For Windows)
- ・ The software to process RAW file on computer is not bundled with DMC-GX85. To do this, SILKYPIX Developer Studio is available for download at Ichikawa Soft Laboratory's website using computer connected to the Internet.
- http://www.isl.co.jp/SILKYPIX/english/p/ (For Windows / Mac)
- Standard accessories DMC-GX85K Kit
- Standard accessories Hot Shoe Cover, Battery Pack, AC Adaptor, USB Connection Cable, Shoulder Strap, Lens Cap
- Standard accessories ・ The DMC-GX85 Operating Instructions for advanced features is available for downloaded at Panasonic LUMIX Customer Support Site using PC, smartphone or tablet connected to the Internet.
- Lens Name LUMIX G VARIO 12-32mm / F3.5-5.6 ASPH. / MEGA O.I.S.
- Lens Construction 8 elements in 7 groups (3 aspherical lenses, 1 ED lens)
- Nano Surface Coating -
- Mount Micro Four Thirds mount
- Optical Image Stabilizer Yes (MEGA O.I.S.)
- Focal Length f=12-32mm (35mm camera equivalent 24-64mm)
- Aperture Type 7 diaphragm blades / Circular aperture diaphragm
- Aperture range N/A
- Aperture N/A
- Maximum Aperture F3.5(Wide) - F5.6(Tele)
- Minimum Aperture F22
- Closest Focusing Distance 0.20m/0.66ft (at focal lenghts 12-20mm) / 0.30m/0.98ft (at focal lenghts 21-32mm)
- Maximum magnification Approx. 0.13x / 0.26x (35mm camera equivalent)
- Diagonal Angle of View 84°(Wide) to 37°(TELE)
- Weatherproof N/A
- Filter Size 37mm / 1.5in
- Max. Diameter φ55.5mm / 2.2in
- Overall Length Approx. 24mm / 0.94in (from the tip of the lens to the base side of the lens mount)
- Weight [g] Approx. 70g (excluding lens cap, lens rear cap )
- Weight [oz] Approx. 2.47oz (excluding lens cap, lens rear cap )
- Others N/A
- Lens Name N/A
- Lens Construction N/A
- Nano Surface Coating N/A
- Mount N/A
- Optical Image Stabilizer N/A
- Focal Length N/A
- Aperture Type N/A
- Aperture range N/A
- Aperture N/A
- Maximum Aperture N/A
- Minimum Aperture N/A
- Closest Focusing Distance N/A
- Maximum magnification N/A
- Diagonal Angle of View N/A
- Weatherproof N/A
- Filter Size N/A
- Max. Diameter N/A
- Overall Length N/A
- Weight [g] N/A
- Weight [oz] N/A
- Others N/A
- Image Stabilization System Image Sensor Shift Type (5-axis)
- TIME LAPSE SHOT Yes
- STOP MOTION ANIMATION Yes
- SILENT MODE Yes
- NOTE * About motion picture recording / 4K Photo recording
- - Use a card with SD Speed Class with "Class 4" or higher when recording motion pictures.
- - Use a card with SD Speed Class with "UHS-I UHS Speed Class 3 (U3)" when recording motion pictures with [MP4] in [4K] or [4K PHOTO].
- (SD speed class is the speed standard regarding continuous writing.)
- - Recording stops when the continuous recording time exceeds 29 minutes and 59 seconds or the file size exceeds 4GB with [MP4] in [FHD] [HD] [VGA].
- - MP4 motion pictures with [MP4] in [4K]:
- - When using an SDHC memory card: You can continue recording without interruption even if the file size exceeds 4 GB, but the motion picture file will be divided and recorded/played back separately.
- - When using an SDXC memory card: You can record a motion picture in a single file.
- - When the ambient temperature is high or continuous recording is performed, the camera may stop the recording to protect itself. Wait until the camera cools down.
- ** For [4K] video output, use an HDMI cable that has the HDMI logo on it, and that is described as"4K compatible".
- UPC 885170285316
TWICE16 VIP Award
LUMIX FL200L Flash: Wirless Hybrid Flash System with Built-in Video LEDDMW-FL200L
Panasonic LUMIX FL580L Flash: Hybrid Flash System with Built-in Video LEDDMW-FL580L
LUMIX G X Vario II Lens, 14-42mm, F3.5-5.6 ASPH., Micro Four Thirds, MEGA Optical I.S. - H-FS1442AKAH-FS1442AKA
LUMIX G Macro Lens, 30mm, F2.8 ASPH., Micro Four Thirds, MEGA Optical I.S. - H-HS030H-HS030
LUMIX G LEICA DG MACRO-ELMAR Lens, 45mm, F2.8 ASPH., Professional Micro Four Thirds, MEGA Optical I.S. - H-ES045H-ES045
LUMIX G LEICA DG NOCTICRON Lens, 42.5mm, F1.2 ASPH., Professional Micro Four Thirds, POWER Optical I.S. - H-NS043H-NS043
LUMIX G Vario Lens, 14-45mm, F3.5-5.6 ASPH., Micro Four Thirds, MEGA Optical I.S. - H-FS014045H-FS014045
LUMIX G X Vario Power Zoom Lens, 45-175mm, F4.0-5.6 ASPH., Micro Four Thirds, POWER Optical I.S. - H-PS45175KH-PS45175K
LUMIX G LEICA DG SUMMILUX Lens, 12mm, F1.4 ASPH., Wide Angle, Professional Mirrorless Micro Four Thirds - Black - H-X012H-X012
LUMIX G X Vario Power Zoom Lens, 14-42mm, F3.5-5.6 ASPH., Micro Four Thirds, POWER Optical I.S. - H-PS14042SH-PS14042S
LUMIX G Vario Lens, 7-14mm, F4.0 ASPH., Micro Four Thirds - H-F007014H-F007014
LUMIX G Vario Lens, 14-140mm, F3.5-5.6 ASPH., Micro Four Thirds, POWER Optical I.S. - H-FS14140AKH-FS14140AK
LUMIX G X Vario Lens, 35-100mm, F2.8 ASPH., Professional Micro Four Thirds, POWER Optical I.S. - H-HS35100H-HS35100
LUMIX G LEICA DG VARIO-ELMAR Lens, 100-400mm, F4.0-6.3 ASPH., Professional Micro Four Thirds, POWER Optical I.S. - H-RS100400H-RS100400
LUMIX G Vario Lens, 12-60mm, F3.5-5.6 ASPH., Micro Four Thirds, POWER Optical I.S. - H-FS12060H-FS12060
LUMIX G Vario Lens, 45-150mm, F4.0-5.6 ASPH., Micro Four Thirds, MEGA Optical I.S. - H-FS45150AKH-FS45150AK
LUMIX G Lens, 42.5mm, F1.7 ASPH., Micro Four Thirds, POWER Optical O.I.S. - H-HS043KH-HS043K
- Version: 1.2
1. Reduced operation noise during the shooting standby or
the motion picture recording.
2. Dual I.S.2 function with the interchangeable lens H-RS100400 is available.
- Release Date: 2-9-2017
- Operating Systems: Windows/Mac